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Sunday, November 3, 2013

History of Early Geometry

GEOMETRY derived from Ancient Greek: geo- "earth"; -metri "measurement" "Earth Measuring" is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

Before the time of recorded history, geometry originated out of practical necessity; it was the science of measuring land. Many ancient civilizations (Babylonian, Hindu, Chinese, and Egyptian) possessed geometric information. The first geometrical considerations “had their origin in simple observations stemming from human ability to recognize physical form and to compare shapes and sizes” There were many circumstances in which primitive people were forced to take on geometric topics, although it may not have been recognized as such. For instance, man had to learn with situations involving distance, bounding their land, and constructing walls and homes. These types of situations were directly related to the geometric concepts of vertical, parallel, and perpendicular.

Elemen Geometri Euclid (c. 300 SM) 

Geometry is one of the oldest mathematical sciences. Initially a body of practical knowledge concerning lengths, areas, and volumes, in the Third century BC geometry was put into an axiomatic form by Euclid, whose treatment-Euclidean geometry-set a standard for many centuries to follow.

Archimedes developed ingenious techniques for calculating areas and volumes, in many ways anticipating modern integral calculus.

The field of astronomy, especially mapping the positions of the stars and planets on the celestial sphere and describing the relationship between movements of celestial bodies, served as an important source of geometric problems during the next one and a half millennia. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer.

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